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Note: This article is from Conservation Magazine, the precursor to Anthropocene Magazine. The full 14-year Conservation Magazine archive is now available here.

Fish-Stocking May Spread Amphibian Disease

July 29, 2008

New research shows that hatchery-reared fish can spread a fungus implicated in the mass deaths of amphibian embryos in the Pacific Northwest. This is the first evidence that fish-stocking can spread amphibian diseases.

“Fish used in stocking programs could be important vectors for diseases responsible for amphibian losses,” say Joseph Kiesecker of the Pennsylvania State University in University Park and his colleagues in the August issue of Conservation Biology.

Historically, hatchery-reared fish were introduced to nearly half of the 16,000 mountain lakes in the western contiguous U.S. Today, fish are still stocked in some national parks and wilderness areas. Fish stocking is common at Pacific Northwest sites with mass amphibian deaths, and the associated fungus (Saprolegnia ferax) is a common disease of hatchery-reared fish.

To determine whether fish-stocking could spread the fungus to amphibians, Kiesecker and his colleagues collected rainbow trout from a fish hatchery and freshly-laid western toad eggs from Lost Lake, Oregon. Western toads have declined severely since the late 1980s, and up to 90 percent of the toad embryos have died at sites with Saprolegnia outbreaks.

Laboratory experiments confirmed that trout can spread the fungus to toad embryos: exposing the embryos to infected trout increased their death rate by about 15 percent. The researchers also found that trout can spread the fungus to soil, which can then infect toad embryos. This treatment also increased the embryo death rate by about 15 percent.

The death rate of fungus-exposed embryos is much smaller in the laboratory than in the wild. This is due to the fact that exposure to the fungus is not enough to cause an outbreak. Kiesecker and his colleagues had previously shown that UV-B radiation also plays a role in Saprolegnia outbreaks.

They caution that discontinuing fish-stocking may not be enough to control diseases spread by introduced fish. “If introduced pathogens become established, effects could persist even after fish-stocking has been discontinued,” say Kiesecker and his colleagues.

—Robin Meadows

Further Information:
Kiesecker, J.M., A.R. Blaustein, and C.L. Miller. 2001. Transfer of a pathogen from fish to amphibians. Conservation Biology 15(4):1064-1070.

Joseph Kiesecker (

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